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Defining the limits of the cyborg: The interior-exterior dilemma in Ghost in the Shell
Agustín Berti.
En (Un)Fleshing Worlds Exploring Nature, Corporality and Technology Through Japanese Visual Culture. New York (Estados Unidos): Palgrave MacMillan.
This chapter focuses on the concept of cyborg in the Ghost in the Shell universe (TV series, OVA and feature films) form a Philosophy of Technology point of view. Current debates on the prosthetic condition of human nature provide a fertile insight to discuss the cyborg condition of Motoko Kusanagi, Batou and the different Section 9 members of the series and their relation to technological research and State funded human resources policies. The article begins by tracing the concept of ?cyborg? in the well-known original proposal made by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline and the way it has been retaken by Donna Haraway?s famous essay. The concept is then compared to others more specific to the field of Philosophy of Technology such as Bernard Stiegler?s ?interiorization? and ?exteriorization? as well as the more recent discussions on the notion of ?extended mind?, and the difference of machine and device ?incorporation? opposed to ?skilled use?. Emerging debates in the field provide accurate concepts to identify the specificities underlying the cyborgs depicted in Ghost in the Shell, as well as other technological entities such as AIs, robots and other ?technical objects?. These distinctions introduce new elements to analyze the interior-exterior dilemma posed by ?ghosts? opposed to other kind of entities in the series as well as its allegories regarding contemporary society.
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